Historic City of Yazd (Fahadan)
The city of Yazd is the ring of the central desert of Iran and the historical region of Yazd is the jewel of this ring where you can see all the architecture of the Islamic era.
A traditional structure that has been well preserved is today one of the most spectacular UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Iran; this unique gem is the first living adobe city in the world.
The History of Yazd
Yazd is one of the oldest cities in the world. Written sources and archaeological excavations reveal that Yazd dates back to 2 to 3 thousand years BC. The first inhabitants of Yazd were the eastern tribes of Iran (immigrants from Balkh). In ancient times, it was considered one of the holy cities of Zoroastrianism. After the Arab invasion and during the Islamic era, Yazd maintained its importance as an important Muslim city, so many buildings were built in it. Over time, with the emergence of modernization in Iran, although this city took on its modern appearance, Yazd preserved its ancient region by building the new city around the old city. Finally, in 2017 AD, the historical region of Yazd was designated as a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
Different Parts of the Historical Region of Yazd and its Architecture
The historical region of Yazd is located exactly in the center of the city, with an approximate area of 700 hectares, this area has about 2000 attractions. All buildings are made of clay and mud with a balanced shape. Make no mistake; This area is completely residential and has all the facilities of an urban life. Muddy alleys, clay corridors, traditional shops, tourist accommodations, traditional hotels, Jameh Mosque of Yazd, old water reservoirs, Amir Chakhmaq Square, Yazd Bazaar, houses related to Ilkhanate era, Dowlat Abad Garden with the world's tallest Windcatcher, Chahar Minar Mosque, etc. are among the historical attractions of Yazd historical region.
But what we should know about the houses in this area is the environmental and geographical conditions in the construction of the building. The air in Yazd is dry and desert, so the houses are designed and built in a way to have the maximum wind and the maximum sunlight in the house Also, Yazd air ventilation system (Windcatcher) can be seen in all the houses. Windcatchers are polygonal columns (mostly 4 and 8) that let the wind in through their upper vents and guide it inside the house. Because the sun does not touch it, it cools the atmosphere of the house; in addition, the ponds in the courtyard of the house spread the cool breeze throughout the house.
While walking in the alleys, you will see one of the attractions of the historical region of Yazd, the high outer walls of the houses; these high walls were built to cast shadow on the streets. It is interesting to know that the alleys and the entrances of the houses are designed in a way that several entrances are close to each other to create a neighborhood. Most of the members of the houses belonging to the same area are relatives of each other.
The historical region of Yazd is the beating heart of history in today's modern world. In addition to visiting it, let's be diligent in preserving and introducing this untouched gem!!!